Reading List

This article contains links to various articles that explain the human genome. Mostly from Wikipedia. A quick introduction to the genome. Each link is followed by key points from the article.

Periodic Table

The human genome is constructed of a string of molecules which themselves are built using atoms. Atoms are categorized into a table according to their atomic weight. The periodic table is thus the starting point for understanding the genome.

History of the periodic table

Explains some of the struggle of discovering what elements are the building blocks of all matter on earth. Understanding of the elements is taken mostly fore granted in our modern world, but the set of known elements is less than 200 years old. It is a modern discovery.

The periodic table under girds chemistry as a scientific discipline. This level of study is relatively simple, based on how atoms interact with each other individually. Molecular biology, where we find the genome, is substantially more complex.

SAM -- Structured Atom Model

Our understanding of the material world is based on discoveries made using the scientific method. Fundamental discoveries are often overturned through further insightful discoveries. The periodic table of the elements may not be fundamentally correct nor complete.

The Structured Adam Model website linked here provides an alternative model with explanatory power that is better than conventional models. I link this here to remind any scientists reading this that all assumptions can be overturned by bright minds looking at problems again, including the base organization of matter itself.

History of molecular biology

The article linked here gives the historical development of what is now called molecular biology. Within this general history is the important discovery of the DNA molecule.

This work began around 1948 and the discovery is considered complete by 1953. James Watson and Francis Crick determined the helical structure and specific atomic structure using X-Ray diffraction.

This technique involves shooting x-rays at a sample and then looking at the shadows cast by the sample onto photographic film.

This process is described prophetically in Daniel 5:5. It would take decades to development the understanding and equipment to fully understand the entire DNA sequence. Even then it varies by individuals.


This article explains the DNA molecule in detail. It shows off the atomic structure of the molecule and goes into great detail about how it functions.

This article explains the four nitrogen-containing nucleobases cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]. These bases form the 4 possible states that each rung on the DNA ladder can take.

Their letter codes, C, G, A, and T, are found throughout the computer files that show the sequence of the human genome. The specific chemistry of these bases are not particularly important, but these 4 letter codes for these nucleobases are very important.


The DNA molecule described above appears in human cells as Chromosomes. Chromosomes contain genetic information that is passed off during cell division. This material originates in the parents and is passed on to children. The article linked here explains in detail how the DNA molecule divides at various times in reproduction.

Human Genome

The article here explains the human genome. This is how human chromosomes are organized.

Note, most biologists explain humans have 23 chromosomes. These are numbered 1 through 22 and then there is either an XX or an XY chromosome.

Most computer files of genome sequences count this differently. There are files or file sections or data base entries for chromosomes numbered 1 through 22 and then there is an X sequence and then a Y sequence. So in the computer nomenclature there are 24 sequenced chromosomes. We used this nomenclature here, 1 through 22 and X and Y.

The XX chromosome marks a female. The XY chromosome marks a male.

Non Coding DNA

There is considerable dispute about how much of DNA actually encodes biological function. Some sources state as little as 2 percent of human DNA encodes biological useful information. Of course this claim could be a lack of full understanding, so it may not be trustworthy. Some think that percentage is much higher. This article on Non Coding DNA explains the issues.

This idea is important to us because if our hunch is correct the inspired parts of the Bible were placed into the DNA as non coding information. It would have been carried along for non biological reasons until their discovery in our era. This idea of non coding DNA allows for our work of attempting to find language in the genome.


This term is used with RNA, note not DNA, and is an area in a sequence which is biologically neutral and skipped when generating other biological molecules.

This is a heads up that there may be gaps in any encoded language that we may eventually find in DNA.

Genetic Code

This article explains most of the important terms that are needed to understand the human genome. In particular how rungs on the DNA ladder encode information. That information is what is available to us in computer files that contain sequences of the human genome.

This article has many topics, but 2 are most important.

  • Codon is a 3 letter expression made up from TACG.

  • Reading Frames are the 6 different ways the DNA sequence can be interpreted.

  • Start/Stop Codons are special and important markers in DNA.

DNA and RNA Codon Tables

This article provides the base tables that explain the encoding of codons those sets of 3 letters make up the genome but then convert to various organic molecules.

There are 2 different tables in this article. The DNA table is the table interesting to our work here.

Nucleic Acid Notation

This article gives an extended set of standard notations that build on the base TACG terms. These notations provide a standard notation for don't care states in the truth tables for codons.

Codons themselves often produce the same nucleic acids even with different terms. This provides the basis for first principle mapping to Paleo letters.

DNA Sequencing

This article explains the processes used in machines that automatically sequence DNA strands.

These often use light, similar to the original discoveries using x-rays. This use of light is seen prophetically in Daniel 5:5.

DNA sense

This article explains the names of the 2 sides of the DNA molecule. There are 2 sides to the DNA molecule, called the sense and antisense strands. Also called coding strand and temple strand.

Codon tables and sequence data are measured relative to the sense strand.

DNA Directionality

Strands of individual nucleic acids on a DNA strands have a sense of direction. One end is called 5' end or 'five prime end' the other end is called 3' or 'three prime end.'

Because of the process of chemical synthesis in the cell, DNA sequence data is usually listed in the 5'-to-3' direction on the sense strand.

The antisense strand matches its 3' end to the sense strand's 5' end, as it runs in reverse.

Terms like upstream mean towards the 5' end while downstream means towards the 3' end.

Reference Frames, see above, modify this standard by offsets.