Codon Table

The most important reference for our work here is the DNA codon table. This table reduces into 1 simple list most of what is known about how data is packed into DNA. This article reproduces the standard DNA Codon Table as our starting point.

Source Table (Wikipedia)

The link here provides the source being used for the codon table copied below. Note there are different tables, we are interested here in the DNA version of the table. The article above has both DNA and RNA tables for humans.

Also note that this particular source is displaying a square table, not the more conventional circular form. This table is already organized to block codons together to reflect the biological uses of codons.

Our starting assumption is that the biological uses of the codons is an approximation of how codons are used to encode text. So by choosing this able we are already keeping a structural element that will be important to matching the paleo language tables for similar encoding.

1st
Base
2nd Base 3rd
Base
T C A G
T TTT (Phe/F)
Phenylalanine
TCT (Ser/S)
Serine
TAT (Tyr/Y)
Tyrosine
TGT (Cys/C)
Cysteine
T
TTC TCC TAC TGC C
TTA (Leu/L)
Leucine
TCA TAA Stop
(Ochre)
TGA Stop
(Opal)
A
TTG TCG TAG Stop
(Amber)
TGG (Trp/W)
Tryptophan
G
C CTT CCT (Pro/P)
Proline
CAT (His/H)
Histidine
CGT (Arg/R)
Arginine
T
CTC CCC CAC CGC C
CTA CCA CAA (Gln/Q)
Glutamine
CGA A
CTG CCG CAG CGG G
A ATT (Ile/I)
Isoleucine
ACT (Thr/T)
Threonine
AAT (Asn/N)
Asparagine
AGT (Ser/S)
Serine
T
ATC ACC AAC AGC C
ATA ACA AAA (Lys/K)
Lysine
AGA (Arg/R)
Arginine
A
ATG (Met/M)
Methionine
ACG AAG AGG G
G GTT (Val/V)
Valine
GCT (Ala/A)
Alanine
GAT (Asp/D)
Aspartic acid
GGT (Gly/G)
Glycine
T
GTC GCC GAC GGC C
GTA GCA GAA (Glu/E)
Glutamic acid
GGA A
GTG GCG GAG GGG G

Human DNA Codon Table

The following table is on the sense strand in the 5' to 3' direction.

Codons are 3 nucleotides, in order. In the following table the columns are marked N0, N1 and N2 for each nucleotide respectively. The amino acid name, short name, letter code, chemical properties and notes are also given.

N0 N1 N2 Amino Acid Abbrs Property Note
Section 1
T T T Phenylalanine Phe/F Nonpolar
T T C Phenylalanine Phe/F Nonpolar
T T A Leucine Leu/L Nonpolar
T T G Leucine Leu/L Nonpolar Possible Start
C T T Leucine Leu/L Nonpolar
C T C Leucine Leu/L Nonpolar
C T A Leucine Leu/L Nonpolar
C T G Leucine Leu/L Nonpolar
A T T Isoleucine Ile/I Nonpolar
A T C Isoleucine Ile/I Nonpolar
A T A Isoleucine Ile/I Nonpolar
A T G Methionine Met/M Nonpolar Possible Start
G T T Valine Val/V Nonpolar
G T C Valine Val/V Nonpolar
G T A Valine Val/V Nonpolar
G T G Valine Val/V Nonpolar Possible Start
Section 2
T C T Serine Ser/S Polar
T C C Serine Ser/S Polar
T C A Serine Ser/S Polar
T C G Serine Ser/S Polar
C C T Proline Pro/P Nonpolar
C C C Proline Pro/P Nonpolar
C C A Proline Pro/P Nonpolar
C C G Proline Pro/P Nonpolar
A C T Threonine Thr/T Polar
A C C Threonine Thr/T Polar
A C A Threonine Thr/T Polar
A C G Threonine Thr/T Polar
G C T Alanine Ala/A Nonpolar
G C C Alanine Ala/A Nonpolar
G C A Alanine Ala/A Nonpolar
G C G Alanine Ala/A Nonpolar
Section 3
T A T Tyrosine Tyr/Y Polar
T A C Tyrosine Tyr/Y Polar
T A A Ochre Stop
T A G Amber Stop
C A T Histidine His/H Basic
C A C Histidine His/H Basic
C A A Glutamine Gln/Q Polar
C A G Glutamine Gln/Q Polar
A A T Asparagine Asn/N Polar
A A C Asparagine Asn/N Polar
A A A Lysine Lys/K Basic
A A G Lysine Lys/K Basic
G A T Aspartic Acid Asp/D Acidic
G A C Aspartic Acid Asp/D Acidic
G A A Glutamic Acid Glu/E Acidic
G A G Glutamic Acid Glu/E Acidic
Section 4
T G T Cysteine Cys/C Polar
T G C Cysteine Cys/C Polar
T G A Opal Stop
T G G Tryptophan Trp/W Nonpolar
C G T Arginine Arg/R Basic
C G C Arginine Arg/R Basic
C G A Arginine Arg/R Basic
C G G Arginine Arg/R Basic
A G T Serine Ser/S Polar (Duplicate)
A G C Serine Ser/S Polar (Duplicate)
A G A Arginine Arg/R Basic (Duplicate)
A G G Arginine Arg/R Basic (Duplicate)
G G T Glycine Gly/G Nonpolar
G G C Glycine Gly/G Nonpolar
G G A Glycine Gly/G Nonpolar
G G G Glycine Gly/G Nonpolar